Samuel Sales Saraiva is the author of projects, studies and proposals focused on social services and environmental preservation. He was accredited by the New York State (NYPD) in 1992, and has worked as a journalist affiliated with the National Press Club (NPB) and the National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAJH) in Washington D.C.
The son of Lt. Jairo de Freitas Saraiva (veteran of World War II) and dentist Adamar de Paiva Sales Saraiva, Samuel was born in Porto Velho, capital of the Brazilian territory of Rondonia, in the early 60s, a golden era for the Brazilian Amazon. In those times, the springs and tropical forests had not yet suffered the devastating and senseless criminal abuse that is currently evident.
Under the damp dawns of childhood, he walked on the rails of the legendary rail track Madeira Mamore (EFMM), listening to the chimes of the old clock tower of the Central Building, which evidences the origins of the city, built by US entrepreneurs, and served by crowds of Caribbean workers and other pioneers, who migrated for the construction of the legendary rail track.
From North to South in Brazil
After concluding his secondary studies, the young Samuel Saraiva traveled by bike the entire 2,425 miles from the Western Amazon to the extreme south of Brazil, journeying between the cities of Porto Velho and Porto Alegre, and bringing to the people of both regions a message of integration, signed by the governor of the territory of Rondonia, Colonel Joao Carlos Marques Henriques, and delivered by Samuel into the hands of the gaucho governor, Euclides Triches.
The journey was finally completed after 45 days going by inhospitable roads under inclement weather, as described later by Senator Leite Chavez of the state of Parana, at the Brazilian Parliament: “Vocations bear some similarity to the waters that rise in the mountains: whatever the obstacles, they reach their destination, and Samuel Saraiva is no different.”
Passage to Mexico
After high school, Samuel Saraiva bid a grateful goodbye to the Gaucha Union of Secondary Students (UGES) and headed for Brasilia, to pursue his dream of studying archeology in Mexico. Impressed by his determination, Senator Adalberto Senna, from the neighboring state of Acre, covered Samuel’s airfare to Mexico. Upon arrival in that dazzling country, he discovered that policies regarding foreigners made it impossible for him to enroll in his desired course of study. Consequently, he opted to study International Relations, entering the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). At that time, the Brazilian Ambassador Lauro Escorel de Moraes, following the request of Colonel Carlos Augusto Godoy, hired him to work in the cultural sector. There he supervised a young third secretary, now Ambassador, Cesário Melantonio Neto. Saraiva’s higher education in Mexico, land of such an ancient culture, fostered his understanding of the reality of Latin America.
Participation in partisan politics
Samuel returned to Brazil in 1980, imbued with socialist idealism, shortly after the demise of the prevailing two-party system (ARENA-MDB) in that country. He aligned with the political group he believed that best represented the aspirations of the people, and, approved by 12 federal deputies, he was assigned by Engineer Leonel de Moura Brizola to represent the Brazilian Labor Party (PTB) in Rondônia, his native state.
After a long legal battle that resulted in the loss of the acronym for the group of Ivete, niece of the former president Getulio Vargas, Saraiva organized and chaired the national Democratic Labor Party (PDT). It was led by Brizola, with the participation of colleagues such as attorney Antonio Osmar de Sa, Engineer Flodoaldo Pontes Pinto, attorney Maria Cristina Moreira da Silva and Dr. Itamar Kurt Kettenhuber, among other idealists, as stated in the Application for Registration Act, prepared by the National Executive Committee of the party, and now part of the archives of the Superior Electoral Tribunal (TSE).
In response to his humanitarian vocation, Samuel formed a Committee for Solidarity to help Bolivian refugees migrating to that state, fleeing the violent military dictatorship imposed by General Garcia Meza. During this time, Samuel also met with the union leader Lula da Silva, an activist in his state, at the Feitosa building in Porto Velho. Among other topics, they discussed strategies for the formation of an opposition front, seeking the prize of the presidency of Brazil, in order to achieve social democratic transformations within the political ideology opposed to the military regime established in 1964.
Saraiva later accepted the invitation of the regional president of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), the legendary federal deputy Jerónimo García de Santana, to join the party. His decision was published on the newspaper Jornal do Brasil, in Rio de Janeiro, on October 2, 1980. Notable political leaders like Senators Paulo Brossard (PMDB-RS), José Richa (PMDB-PR), Humberto Lucena (PMDB-PB), and the deputies Ulysses Guimarães (PMDB-SP) and Max Mauro (PMSB-ES) all welcomed him.
A few months later, the new party held its first national convention, in which Samuel Saraiva’s bill, institutionalizing the National Youth Movement party with its own program and status, was approved in the plenary session, as reported by the newspaper Correio Braziliense, on July 12, 1980. Two years later he was appointed Surrogate Federal Deputy for the new state of Rondonia by the Regional Electoral Tribunal, and his name was published in the book listing deputies of the 47th Brazilian legislature.
In addition to his political activity, Samuel Saraiva has held several positions in the National Congress: Cabinet Officer of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB); Legislative Consultant of the Advisory and Research Institute of the Congress (IPEAC); Parliamentary Assistant for various Congressmen; Parliamentary Advisor at the National Congress of the State Government of Rondonia, in 1985 (Angelo Angelin’s Administration), and of the State of Espirito Santo, in 1988 (Max Mauro’s Administration.)
At the Brazilian Congress
Among dozens of speeches regarding Saraiva’s political trajectory (preserved in the historical archives of the National Congress of Brazil), many of which were given by congressmen with different accents and ideological references, even within his own party, it is worth mentioning the speech of Senator Carlos Alberto de Sousa, leader of the Brazilian Labor Party (PTB). His speech was published in the Journal of the Senate of the Brazilian Republic on March 19, 1985 (section II page 0267).
At that time, Samuel was completing the Diplomatic Law course at the University of Brasilia (UnB), taught by Ambassador J.O. Meira Penna. Among Samuel’s university teachers were intellectual personalities such as the postdoctoral instructors Joanilio Teixeira, Lytton Guimaraes, David Fletcher, Francisco Resek, Eiiti Sato, Marcio Moreira Alves, Francisco Resek, Márcio Cambraia and Father Joseph Brandi Aleixo. Some of them were masters from the traditional Rio Branco Institute, tutor of Brazilian diplomats.
Citations of Samuel Saraiva’s Work in the Plenary Congress of Brazil
- Deputy Dionisio Hage (PMDB-PA), presenting the initiative project called Transfronteira, when Samuel Saraiva was certified as Surrogate Federal Deputy. [Plenary session, DCN 28/4/1988]
- Deputy Gilson de Barros (PMDB-MT), commenting on the restriction to the criterion established for choosing the first governor. The deputy requested from the Congress files the transcript of the Party’s Youth Movement Manifesto, which supported the candidacy of Samuel Saraiva to the Federal Chamber. [Plenary session, DCN 21/12/1981]
- Deputy Mario Frota (PMDB-AM), in reference to the Preventive Mandate requested against the Directors of the Chamber of Deputies, to prevent the voting of Article 6 of the Complementary Bill that created the state of Rondonia, but prevented the people from electing its first governor. [Plenary session, DCN 20/10/1981]
- Deputy Mario Frota (PMDBAM), congratulating Samuel Saraiva and lawyer Luis Alcio Pessoa, for interposing at the Supreme Federal Tribunal (STF) a Mandate of Preventive Security, against the decision of the Officers of the Chamber of Deputies, which provided for the appointment of the first governor of a new State of Rondonia. [Plenary session, DCN 8/10/1981]
- Deputy Alvaro Dias (PMDBPR), protesting against the act of the Governor of Rondonia, Colonel Jorge Teixeira de Oliveira, who determined the construction of the official residence. Samuel Saraiva filed a class action suit in Federal Court, against the execution of that work. [Plenary session, DCN 27/8/1981]
- Senator Evandro Carreira (PMDB-AM), expressing his support for the candidacy of Samuel Saraiva to the Chamber of Deputies in 1982. [Plenary session, DCN 4/6/1981]
- Deputy Gilson de Barros (PMDB-MT), commenting on his leadership activities in the Youth Movement of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB). [Plenary session, DCN 21/12/1981]
- Deputy Jerónimo Santana (PMDB-RO), remarking on his adherence to the PMDB and recalling that he was coordinator of PDT in that State. [Plenary session, DCN 21/10/1980]
- Deputy Cardoso Fregapani again, extolling his political performance in the Presidency of the Interim Commission of PDT in Rondonia. [Plenary session, DCN 18/9/1980]
- Deputy Eloy Lenzi (PDT-RS), reporting threats and intimidation attempts suffered by Samuel Saraiva, while he was organizing the Democratic Labor Party in Rondonia. [Plenary session, DCN 13/6/1980]
- Deputy Cardoso Fregapani (PTBRS), concerning the indication of Samuel Saraiva to articulate the PTB in Rondonia. [Plenary session, DCN 7/4/1980]
- Senator Alvaro Dias (Leader of Podemos), registering a message of outrage from Samuel Sales Saraiva in reference to the decision made by the Chamber of Deputies, not accepting the impeachment of the President of the Brazilian Republic, Michel Temer. [Plenary of SF – 08/03/2017)] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4A9Bk7ZPtc0
- Senator Alvaro Dias (Leader of Podemos), transcribing the biography of Adamar Sales Saraiva. [Plenary session, DSF 03/11/2017]
- Senator Alvaro Dias (Leader of Podemos), registering the open letter from Samuel Saraiva to the President Elect Jair Messias Bolsonaro and members of the Brazilian Congress on the urgency to re-evaluate the Transfronteira project. [Plenary session, DSF 12/11/2018]
- Senator Alvaro Dias (leader of the political party Podemos), requesting the insertion in the official records of the Brazilian Federal Senate of two articles written by Samuel Saraiva, published by the website Gente de Opinião with the title “Fire in the Amazon generates global apprehension” and “SOS Amazon – The forest calls for UN military intervention”. [Plenary session DSF 27/08/2019]
- Speech by Senator Álvaro Dias (Leader of Podemos in the Brazilian Federal Senate), presenting a proposal to the Brazilian Minister of the Environment, authored by Samuel Sales Saraiva, suggesting that official institutions of credit require borrowers to participate in courses and certification programs about the importance of conserving the environment, as well as the sanctions determined by law for environmental crimes. It also suggests that the Federal Government assess with financial institutions the feasibility of this proposal, based on the already existing instruments of the sector’s self-regulation, and implement it in an upcoming revision of the Green Protocol, aiming at promoting socio-environmental commitment in the financial sector. [Plenary, DSF 04/14/ 2021] https://fb.watch/51pRlVXxBC/
Journalism carrier in United States
In the United States, which has granted Saraiva the citizenship that he so proudly holds, Samuel began his journalistic activities in 1992. He was accredited by the Department of New York State Police (NYPD), and wrote for a community magazine. Once transferred to Washington D.C., in 1994, he joined the National Press Club (NPB) and the National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ). Later, he accepted the invitation of journalist Carlos Speranca, President of the Union of Journalists of Brazil, Rondônia section, to work as the correspondent in the USA for the magazine “Momento Brasil” and the websites “Gente de Opinião” and “RondôniaWeb”. http://www.gentedeopiniao.com.br/colunista/samuel-saraiva/81
In October, 2000, shortly after founding the magazine “US Latin,” together with former US Ambassador John Kean, Samuel Saraiva assumed the role of editor and was invited by the White House during the Clinton Administration to participate in the Conference on “the growing importance of the Latino population in the United States”.
Some years later he received an award signed by President George W. Bush for the studies developed regarding strengthening bilateral relations between the US and Brazil.
“Samuel Sales Saraiva is a dreamer with his feet firmly planted in reality,” said the attorney and former Brazilian Federal Deputy Isaac Newton da Silva Pessoa (PDS-RO), in a testimony presented to the Minister of Defense and Strategic Affairs of Brazil, Celso Amorim, on April 25, 2013. (Isaac was the rapporteur at the Commission of the Interior, of the Supplementary Law Project that transformed the territory of the State of Rondonia in Brazil, and was a founding member of the Endireita Brazil Institute.)
“Manaus, Amazonas, May 5, 2013. In the exercise of my citizenship, I submit to the consideration of your ministry the application for the Medal of Merit Award to be given to the journalist Samuel Sales Saraiva, former Surrogate Federal Deputy, for his continued dedication to causes of broad national interest over more than three decades, of which I am a witness and admirer.
At the time that the draft law called ‘Calha Norte’ was outlined from the military viewpoint by the National Security Council and National Information Service (SNI), Samuel Saraiva had already completed the Transfronteira Project, inspired by a civilian concept, which proposed the planned occupation of the international border of the Amazon, for the attainment of national security, integration, development and environmental preservation—objectives inspired by the nationalist teachings and example of his father.
Although the path traveled by Saraiva has been permeated by the resistance of groups opposed to the ideas he defended, he was ahead of his time and never gave up the fight, driven by an unaltered awareness of the importance of these objectives. In fact, his proposal called Transfronteira was four times the target of boycotts and regulatory maneuvers, which prevented the proper consideration of its merit in the plenum of the two houses of the Brazilian Parliament.
That disappointment prompted him to emigrate to the United States in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, although far from his homeland, Saraiva never turned his back on his countrymen.
As a journalist, he incessantly warned the federal authorities and population, by means of the articles he published on the website “Gente de Opinião,” about the dangers of that vast, desolate, vulnerable border area, which transformed the concept of sovereignty into an abstraction of law.
Finally, after frequent trips from the US to Brazil using his private resources, he found support in the patriotic vision of Deputy Nilton Capixaba, who presented the Transfronteira Project and sent it to the Presidency of the Republic of Brazil in the form of a legislative indication, in 2013.
It was accompanied by favorable technical reports of irrefutable importance, including one from the Army General Staff signed by Brigadier General Benedito Onofre Bezerra Leonel, and another from the Minister of Aeronautics, signed by Air Brigadier Fernando Mario Cecchi, on behalf of the Air Force General Staff. In turn, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty) presented a technical study prepared by three divisions and signed by the Minister of State, Roberto de Abreu Sodré.
The recognition of merit will do justice to his remarkable dedication, pointing out that, for the legislative act, an elective mandate is not required, a vocation only sufficing, committed to exercising citizenship without demanding a single penny from the public purse, as, indeed, happens in some developed countries of the European continent.
Despite the difficulties along his trajectory pursuing the ‘age of reason’, Samuel Saraiva was distinguished as a humanist, unbridled by religious labels, doctrines, philosophies or ideologies,” he concluded.
During his years of legislative activity, Samuel Saraiva was the promoter of several bills. One of the most outstanding, which he considered the most important, was the TRANSFRONTEIRA project, prefaced by Senator Franciscos Leite Chaves, and aimed at the authorization of Brazil’s Executive Branch to negotiate with the countries of the Amazon common border the conclusion of agreements for the planned occupation by settlements of agricultural populations of the entire border area, and the connection of the basic system of interstate transport between them. The prestigious Jornal de Brasilia broke the news of the Project on July 4, 1986. The importance of the proposal and the technical reports about it, issued by representative sectors of society, ministries, and the Thematic Commissions of the Brazilian Parliament, gave rise to the publication of two books: the first, Transfronteira, kept the name of the Project; the second was entitled Amazonia: Integration, Preservation, Development and Security. Both were translated into Spanish and English.They included a preface by the Brazilian ambassador J.O. Meira Penna, and were edited jointly by the Chamber of Deputies, the Federal Senate and the Latin American Parliament, then registered at the National Library as intellectual works. It is noteworthy that the books are part of the collection of the Library of the United States Congress.
The TRANSFRONTEIRA project preceded the so-called Calha Norte project, idealized during the government of Jose Sarney and subsequently elaborated for the defense of the area located to the north of that border. The legislative proposal was presented in the plenary session of the Federal Chamber by Deputies José Guedes (PSDB-RO), Assis Canuto (PFL-RO) and Raquel Cândido (PDT-RO), having been approved in all the Thematic Committees of the House. Later in 2013, the federal deputy Nilton Capixaba represented it, in the terms of Bill No. 5341.
Intelligence and Security
In another bill, Saraiva proposed the regulation of paragraph X of the Article 49 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil, regarding the need for an effective oversight of intelligence, information and security by the Congress, in order to prevent the recurrence of the excesses practiced during the former military regime (Jornal de Brasilia, 28/04/1990).
Independent Control of the Action of Judges
With remarkable insight, Samuel Saraiva walked the thread between the essence of the law and the Brazilian Judicial System, by suggesting to the president of the Brazilian Federal Commission of Constitution and Justice, Senator Bernardo Cabral (PP-AM), the development of a legislative technical study to form a National Disciplinary Commission. This commission would have the power to dismiss judges for misconduct. External control of the judiciary originated from the legislative opinion of the Brazilian Federal Senate No.196, 1997.
Aid for Chemical Dependency
A few years later, Saraiva drafted Bill No. 1163/1991, intended to create a national registry for assistance to people addicted to narcotic and psychotropic substances. Federal Deputy Jabes Rabelo (PTB-RO) introduced the bill. One of the co-signers of the bill was Eduardo Braga, former leader of the government of Dilma Rouses and Minister of Mines and Energy. In the Commission of Constitution, Justice and Redaction, the matter was reported by the renowned jurist Deputy Hélio Bicudo (PT-SP).
The Humanization of Public Safety Services
Samuel Saraiva formulated a legislative proposal requiring the addition of anesthetics to the projectiles used by Public Safety Agencies and Private Security Agencies. The proposal was submitted for study by the Legal Committee of the United States Senate, at the request of Senators Paul Sarbanes and Barbara Mikulski, in the 105th Legislature [Washington D.C.]. This was published in the journal Gazette of the City of Wheaton, Maryland, on March 10, 1994.
Action in Washington D.C.
Advocated for the Legalization of Brazilian Citizens in the U.S
In 2003, President George W. Bush sent a message to Samuel Saraiva, thanking him for his studies in strengthening bilateral relations. The document proposed new Brazilian immigration legislation that would allow American citizens to emigrate to Brazil if the United States were attacked with weapons of mass destruction or suffered a natural disaster of great magnitude.
As a potential result of such a friendly unilateral action taken by the Brazilian government, Saraiva envisioned American reciprocity, which could facilitate the legalization of more than a million undocumented Brazilians in that country. The proposal impacted the Senate of Brazil. Senator Valdir Raupp gave a speech in a plenary session at the Federal Senate, asking President Lula da Silva and the Minister of Foreign Affairs to take actions to implement the suggestion. (SF-03/09/2003).
Volunteer Community Service
Saraiva was also concerned about the welfare of Brazilian youth and the opportunities they deserve. Thus, on December 20, 2004, he presented a bill regarding youth inclusion in the academic system, and the provision of Student Community Service as a prerequisite for obtaining a high school or preparatory school diploma within the networks of both public and private sectors.
Samuel drafted legislation instituting a registry for needy children residing in Brazil and for Brazilian citizens living abroad, with the purpose of providing them with humanitarian material assistance. The proposal was highlighted in a plenary session at the Federal Senate by Senator and Vice Leader Mario Calixto Filho, as published by the Parliament News Agency on September 17, 2004.
Political Representation of the Diaspora
In 2009, the Federal Deputy Manoel Junior (PMDB-PB) and more than 183 parliamentarians signed a Proposed Amendment to the Constitution [No. 436, of 18/11], strengthening the third paragraph of Article 45 of the Federal Constitution, granting citizens living abroad the right to vote and choose representatives to the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies. The proposal was supported by the Committee on Constitution and Justice, and the formation of a special committee for deliberation was expected.
Assistance to Brazilians Abroad
On February 24, 2010, the same Congressman welcomed and presented the Complementary Law Project no. 559 (24/2/2010), drafted by Samuel Saraiva, about charging a social contribution fee over money remittances made by individuals living abroad to individuals or companies based in Brazil. The fee was intended to provide resources for Brazilian citizens living abroad, in case of emergency situations.
International Treaties for Occupation of the Amazon Border
On April 17, 2013, Saraiva urged members of the National Parliament and the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to act responsibly and with urgency to revise the existing international treaties limiting construction in countries sharing the border of the Amazon Basin. These treaties are outdated, out of touch with reality and create difficulties for full regional integration. He highlighted this in an article published on the news website Gente de Opinião (https://www.gentedeopiniao.com.br).
Education for Environmental Awareness
In 2011, Samuel Saraiva presented a legislative study to the President of Brazil, advocating the inclusion of environmental education as a specific subject in the curriculum of preparatory and high schools, in order to awaken in future generations the concern about environmental conservation.
Inclusion of Ethics and Conflict Resolution Courses
At the same time, Samuel suggested that students should make a commitment to the moral principles essential for human coexistence, and that young people should receive defense training for non-violent resolution of conflicts—education aimed at promoting ethics, citizenship and peace. The concept was posted on the website Gente de Opinião (www.gentedeopiniao.com.br) on December 8, 2011. In June, 2015, it was sent to Federal Congresswoman Mariana Carvalho (PSDB-RO) for her consideration. The same initiative proposed addressing the causes of child and youth violence, corruption and degradation by including specific study subjects in public education, in order to better prepare future generations. This was posted on July 9, 2015.
Control of the Brazilian Consular Service
With the intention of making the activities of the employees of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty) more efficient, Samuel Saraiva drafted the proposal that would make it mandatory for consular offices to freely distribute service evaluation forms to Brazilians residing abroad, allowing them to express their degree of satisfaction with the provision obtained. The proposal was presented to Senator Alvaro Dias (PSDB-PR).
These forms would also allow the inclusion of complaints and comments, protecting the confidentiality of the information, and should contain the contact address or email of the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate and the Federal Public Ministry. The proposal was posted on May 11, 2011, on the website www.gentedeopiniao.com.br.
Data Unification System for Brazil’s Public Health Services
Samuel Saraiva proposed a bill to create a National Single Registry that would allow doctors to have immediate access to the clinical records of a Brazilian patient, for the purpose of regular or urgent care. It was recorded by the Unified Health System (SUS) of the Ministry of Health under No. 123652, on June 20, 2012. The proposal received support from other professionals, including Dr. Denise Sistorelli, Professor at the Federal University of the State of Goias.
Public Officials Asset Control
In July, 2014, before scandals engulfed the state authorities of Brazil, Samuel Saraiva proposed the creation of a joint committee composed of members of the Superior Electoral Tribunal, the Court of Auditors, the Comptroller General of the Union and the National Council of Justice. This committee would perform technical and legal studies aimed at the adoption of permanent legal mechanisms for monitoring the assets and finances of holders or candidates of elective mandates, and of executives of the first, second and third levels of administration encharged with the management of public resources.
Discussion of the Principles of Freedom of Speech
As a consequence of the religiously motivated terrorist attack suffered by the Charlie Hebdo newspaper in France, Saraiva suggested that the Franco-Brazilian deputy Eduardo Cypel, of the French National Assembly, promote a broad debate on legal rules that could inhibit excesses in the freedom of expression, ensuring the preservation of dignity, respect and inviolability of the exercise of faith, fundamental to human dignity and peace. The proposal was posted on the website “Gente de Opinião” on January 14, 2015.
Integration of the Brazilian National Water System with the Amazon’s Hydrography
Saraiva sent a message to the President of Brazil, and to the governors and directors of the National Water Agency (ANA) in January, 2015, stressing the need for studies on integrating the National Water Supply Systems with the Amazon. Such a system would allow the collection of surplus water during the rainy season in the Amazon basin and store it to mitigate the recurring problems of seasonal water scarcity.
Polygraph as Law in the Defense of Citizen Dignity
Samuel Saraiva drafted a bill that ensured the use of polygraph as valid evidence in criminal proceedings, when requested by the defendant. The federal deputy Manoel Junior (PMDB-PB) presented it at the plenary session of the National Congress [PL No. 1654/2015].
Distribution of Royalties to the People
In October, 2014, Samuel Saraiva suggested to presidential candidate Aécio Neves (PSDB-MG) that a portion of the royalties corresponding to extracted mineral resources should be distributed to the population, as a legitimate right superseding political, religious or philosophical sectarianism.
Conventional Burial or Cremation
On January 25, 2016, Samuel Saraiva presented to the Maryland State Assembly member Anne R. Kaiser a proposal about including in the driver’s license an optional symbol indicating the holder’s wish to be cremated in case of a fatal accident or death from other causes. Samuel felt that this democratic measure would ensure compliance with the citizens’ preferences.
In Defense of Environmental Preservation
An environmentalist with a relentless concern for environmental preservation, Saraiva developed and submitted a document to the Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN), Mr. Ban Ki-moon, and the ambassadors of member countries with a presence on the Security Council. The document would declare all water sources on the planet, as well as the reserves of tropical forests, part of the heritage vital for all humanity.
Saraiva proposed in this document that any action causing damage to those vital reserves should be considered a universal criminal offense, for the sake of all life on the planet. He also advocated the training of the UN Peace Corps to intervene, when convened by any of the member countries, to help governments combat such threats.
Samuel Saraiva justified these measures as addressing immediate needs, stating that, “We are guests, not owners” of that heritage, which is the birthright of future generations. His proposal was publicized in a variety of media, following the example of Forbes Magazine’s article, published on December 20, 2006. The ABC Television Network Eyewitness did the same on December 24, 2006, followed by Telemundo, a Spanish television channel, which highlighted the issue on December 23 of that year.
Transforming the Amazon into a natural food production and industrialization pole, to fight hunger in Brazil and in the world.
On January 3, 2023, Saraiva sent a message to the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the Minister of the Environment, Marina Silva, and to the Minister of Agriculture, Senator Carlos Favaro, proposing the formation of a scientific-governmental commission, including representatives of the interested social segments, to elaborate strategic studies aiming at the development of a self-sustainable economy in the Brazilian Amazon. Such development would be based on the real economic vocation of the Amazon, which lies in the sustainable production of raw vegetable materials native to the region, establishing partnerships with local communities and promoting traceability and transparency in the production chain. This vocation presupposes not only the sustainable production of food and raw material for cosmetics, but also the revitalization of rubber plantations, and the settlement of MST workers to recover degraded areas with the implementation of agro-forests. Finally, a key point for the responsible development of the Amazon region will be the education of the public or private borrowers involved in activities related to the environment. By implementing this model of sustainable development, the government of President Lula will ensure the generation of jobs in the Amazon region; the strengthening of the Brazilian economy and the protection of the forest (indispensable for the capture of carbon from the atmosphere and the maintenance of the rainfall regime in other regions of Brazil).
The strategic studies suggested are necessary for the implementation of the five aspects of this proposal: 1) expansion of the sustainable production of native Amazonian food; 2) expansion of the sustainable extractivism of Amazonian raw materials and formation of a hub for industrialization of raw materials shared by the states that form the Amazon; 3) revitalization of the rubber plantations; 4) use of lakes for large-scale fish farming; and 5) recovery of degraded areas with the settlement of landless workers and the implementation of agro-forestry aimed at restoring native species, so as to recover the immense areas subtracted for agro-pastoral activity, contrary to the true economic vocation of the Region. Reference: https://expressaorondonia.com.br/celeiro-alimenticio-natural-amazonico-ajudaria-no-combate-a-fome/
Six months after having presented the proposal for “Preservation and Sustainable Development of the Amazon” to the Brazilian government, Samuel Sales Saraiva received in Washington D.C. (USA) the official letter No. 283/2023/SDI/MAPA, from the Ministry of Agriculture, dated July 28, 2023, communicating the release of the Amazon + Sustainable Plan. The following is the full content of the document, signed electronically by PEDRO ALVES CORRÊA NETO, Deputy Secretary for Innovation, Sustainable Development, Irrigation and Cooperativism (SDI), at the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAPA):
“Dear Mr. Samuel Sales Saraiva,
The Amazon is one of the greatest natural assets of Brazil and of the world, harboring rich biodiversity and providing essential ecosystem services for climate, water and human health. However, given its socio-environmental complexity, the Amazon faces challenges to accelerate its economic development and environmental preservation. In this context, we are pleased to learn of your interest in collaborating with public efforts by submitting suggestions for the achievement of a self-sustaining economy in the region. In line with the five aspects of the proposal you presented, listed below, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock-MAPA launched, on April 5, 2023, following Ordinance No. 575 (MAPA), the plan for the agricultural development of the Amazon — Amazon + Sustainable Plan.
1 – Scaling up sustainable food production;
2 – Scaling up sustainable extractivism;
3 – Revitalization of rubber plantations;
4 – Promotion of fish farming;
5 – Recovery of degraded areas and adoption of agroforestry systems.
This Development Plan aims to promote the implementation of a sustainable agricultural model, in order to support the financial autonomy of rural producers, and the conservation of the environment in the nine states of the Legal Amazon (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins). The actions comprise the structured integration of public policies that focus on territorial planning (land regularization and environmental compliance), production structuring (bioeconomy, salubrity, decarbonizing chains, targeted technical assistance, agroindustrialization), market access (exportation, distinctive seals, and organic certification), food procurement, innovation (sustainable solutions, technology diffusion, mitigation of greenhouse gases), and recognition of traditional knowledge.
The management model of the plan for the agricultural development of the Amazon — Amazon + Sustainable Plan is regulated by MAPA Ordinance No. 576, of April 5, 2023. Briefly, management will be conducted by three bodies as described below:
I – The Management Unit of the Amazon + Sustainable Plan, responsible for the management of the Plan, acting in the coordination of specific singular bodies and entities linked to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, in the search for partnerships to ensure, at federal and state level, the synergy between programs and projects that have affinity with its objectives;
II – The Central Coordination Committee of the Amazon + Sustainable Plan, a deliberative body at the national level, whose purpose is to ensure integration between the specific singular bodies of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, units and partner entities, while proposing strategies and evaluating the guidelines and goals of the Amazon + Sustainable Plan; and
III – The State Coordination Committees of the Amazon + Sustainable Plan, deliberative bodies at the state level, which can be grouped with other instances of programs of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, with the purpose of planning, implementing and monitoring the Amazon + Sustainable Plan in the States, according to the strategic actions defined by the Central Committee.
Finally, we would like to thank you for your collaboration. It is of utmost importance that everyone joins efforts to promote the socio-economic and environmental development of this region, which possesses an invaluable natural heritage. Your interest and contribution are valued and demonstrate that together we can make a difference in building a more sustainable future.”
|PEDRO ALVES CORREA NETO, Deputy Secretary, on 28/07/2023, at 15:08, according to the official time of Brasília, based on art. 4, § 3, of the Decree No. 10.543, of November 13, 2020.
|The authenticity of this document can be checked on the website: https://sei.agro.gov.br/sei/controlador_externo.php?acao=documento_conferir&id_orgao_acesso_externo=0 , providing the verifier code 29982750 and the CRC code FBB403BF.
|Reference: Process no. 21000.005322/2023-10
|SEI nº 29982750
CREATION OF THE PERMANENT POLITICAL ADVISORY COUNCIL OF THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL SENATE
On January 6, 2023, Saraiva sent a proposal to the Presidency of the Brazilian Federal Senate (Senator Rodrigo Pacheco) suggesting the elaboration of a technical-legislative study, aiming at the creation of a permanent Political Council to help Brazil, especially in times of crisis and institutional political turmoil. The Council would be constituted by former senators who have served more than three terms in office and have distinguished themselves by their leadership, with a notable knowledge of the Brazilian reality, and an exemplary public life. They would be chosen by the Senate presidency and the collegiate of leaders, and confirmed by the plenary. The members of the proposed Council would have the title of Senators Emeritus, and the body would have a consultative character, directly linked to the Presidency of the Senate. Samuel Saraiva justified that, once created, the Council would allow the relieving of responsibility for important decisions made by the President of the Senate, which, as in the case of the Executive branch, also applies to the Legislative branch. For him, Brazil cannot afford to disregard the intellectual contribution of men with deep knowledge of the Brazilian reality, developed in a learning process that has lasted decades and has had a considerable cost for the Legislative branch throughout their terms in office.
Combining idealism and action, in March 2023, Saraiva conceived a project aiming to broaden academic environmental studies with the collection of samples for the measurement of the levels of contamination of the Atlantic coast of the American Continent. In May of the same year, Samuel Saraiva obtained the certification of Amateur Skipper and Powerboater, issued by the Brazilian maritime authority, allowing coastal oceanic navigation. He was awarded the Sentinel of Tapajós distinction by Commander and Captain-of-the-Sea-and-War Froes, with the Santarém Port Authority, established in 1918 by the Brazilian Navy. As an Amateur Skipper, the navigator is qualified to operate vessels between domestic and foreign ports within the limits of coastal navigation (within sight of the coast, not more than 20 nautical miles away from it). Saraiva completed the Amateur Skipper training course at the Ramos Nautical School in Santarém, in the Amazon, which covered topics such as coastal and estimated navigation, reading nautical charts, magnetic declination and compass deviation, dead reckoning, bearings, and nautical instruments.
Empathy for animal life At the age of two, according to reports from his late mother Adamar, while she was attending to a patient on the small boat that served as her office, Samuel tripped and fell into the mighty Amazon River. At that moment, King, his dog, jumped into the river and held it in his mouth. Had it not been for the dog’s protective gesture, he would have perished. Explaining his respect for animals, he said: “It saddens me to see that such docile and affectionate animals are exposed to mistreatment or abandoned to their own fate, waiting for adoption by some evolved and generous soul. Compassion implies respect, ethical behavior, and awareness that no rational animal should be carried, fed, or entertained at the expense of an irrational being equally conceived of spirit and matter”.
Online course on environmental preservation
Convinced of the urgency of greater awareness of the responsible management of projects involving the environment, Samuel Saraiva submitted a proposal to Senator Álvaro Dias in September, 2020. The proposal required the completion of an online course on environmental preservation as a prerequisite for public and private institutions to gain access to lines of financing and loans.
This initiative was welcomed by the congressman, resulting in a detailed study by the legislative consultancy of the Federal Senate, which, in its conclusions, pointed out two alternatives for making the proposal feasible:
- a) Amendment of Law No. 6,938, of 1981, which “deals with the National Environmental Policy, its purposes and mechanisms of formulation and application, and other measures”, creating in art. 12 the obligation for official credit institutions to demand that borrowers attend a course on the importance of conserving the environment.
- b) Request the Ministry of the Environment to work together with financial institutions to study the feasibility of the proposal, based on the sector’s existing self-regulation instruments, including it in a forthcoming review of the Green Protocol or another measure created with a view to promoting socio-environmental commitment in the financial sector.
Source: Federal Senate of Brazil (Legislative Consultancy) – INFORMATIVE NOTE No. 4,612, FROM 2020 on STC No. 2020-08204.
In May, 2008, Saraiva became concerned about the alarming food shortages which cause millions of deaths worldwide, while hundreds of tons of food deteriorate due to improper storage or expiration before consumption.
Together with the Executive Director of the World Food Programme (WFP), he called for effective action by both the government and the private sector, with emphasis on the large-scale construction of industrial plants for food dehydration, in order to help populations scourged by economic instabilities, war or natural disasters. These crises would include those caused by tsunamis, floods, prolonged droughts, hurricanes, and earthquakes. The proposal was also shared with the Obama government of the United States, to whom Samuel Saraiva suggested studies for the expansion of strategic food reserves, with the use of freeze-drying technology. The proposal was published in the portal www.prlog.org on January 26, 2010.
Preventive Anti-Terrorism Strategies
On November 17, 2015, Saraiva sent a message to President Barack Obama, extended to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other security government agencies, suggesting studies on the creation of a Global Reward Fund to be administered by the UN, and intended to reward information providers who proactively fight conspiracies and prevent terrorist actions.
The Global Reward Fund could provide monetary prizes and education, as well as the legalization of immigrants and the preservation of the identity of informants. It seemed to Samuel that the creation of such a mechanism would generate significant motivation for young people and members of Muslim communities who identify with Western culture and values to denounce conspiracies, thereby preventing terrorist attacks from being committed by extremists in the name of Islam.
Saraiva stressed that resources for such a fund would be trifling compared to the cost of a missile, and tiny compared to a multimillion-dollar national budget for military and intelligence operations. The proposal was posted on the website Gente de Opinião, on November 17, 2015. (http://www.gentedeopiniao.com.br/noticia/proposto-a-obama-criacao-de-fundo-global-para-premiar-informacoes-que-evitem-acoes-terroristas/145428)
USA-Brazil Bilateral Relations
Samuel Saraiva proposed a partnership between Brazil and the US based on friendship, trust, cooperation and mutual respect, and grounded in historical references and practices in the military, economic, political, social and cultural spheres. After being sent to the presidents of the United States and Brazil, the subject was published on the site Amazonias, by the renowned journalist Montezuma Cruz.
Venturing into a private initiative in 2009, Saraiva formed a company called SemperFi Management Contractor LLC in the state of Delaware, which is also registered in Maryland. In 2015, in Washington, D.C., he received the Minority Business Certification – MBC – of the Capital Region Minority Supplier Development Council (CRMSDC) and the Maryland Department of Transportation. In 2018 he advocated for the construction of shelters in the metropolitan area of Washington DC, to serve as protection in case of natural disasters or attacks by weapons of mass destruction.
Requested Apple’s Support to Create HELP App
On April 04, 2016, Samuel Saraiva addressed the Apple executives Steven Jobs and Tim Cook in an open letter, proposing the creation of a free global application that would be named HELP. Throughout all Apple devices, this public service would hold a database that would benefit people in need of some sort of help and those who, in some way, would like to hear stories that sensitize them and practice fraternity. http://www.gentedeopiniao.com.br/noticia/samuel-saraiva-sugere-a-apple-o-aplicativo-help/150313
Advocated for Meritorious Academic Credit for US Military
On November 24, 2022, Saraiva presented a proposal to the US Government encouraging the recognition of skills and experience acquired in military service, through academic credit granted to all personnel who have completed their contracts with the Armed Forces (NAVY, MARINES, ARMY, AIR FORCE, NATIONAL GUARD and COAST GUARD) and wish to pursue a college, master’s or doctoral degree. This initiative recognizes knowledge acquired during military service as meritorious school credits, to be included in the GPA calculation. It also aims to reduce the academic inequality between these young people and those who have had the opportunity to focus solely on their studies. – https://samuelsaraiva.com/proposal-to-the-us-government-encourages-therecognition-of-skills-and-experience-acquired-inmilitary-service-through-academic-credit/?fbclid=IwAR28zKvmDFjX9wgCNAZEg4zQzGztxqw5PLeh3T49rkCAT5WFjel1gLg31yU
Global standardization of medical curricula for medicine courses
In a letter sent on 04/04/2023 to Doctor Krestin Verna Petric, Chair of the executive Board of the World Health Organization – WHO, in Geneva – Switzerland, the elaboration of medical studies aimed at the global standardization of the curricula of medical courses, ensuring the recognition of valid professional training for equal medical performance and for greater effectiveness of professional care. Samuel Saraiva argues that the world needs visionary leaders and citizens, willing to circumscribe divergences and promote convergences. This is for the implementation of feasible proposals that meet true human needs. In his view, scientific advances should be regarded as advances in civilization itself, not as a privilege of a few nations.
Opinion: Although medicine is often attributed to Hippocrates, because of the study of diseases and their symptoms, it has existed since the beginning of time, when it was mixed with beliefs and magic.
Since then, medicine has been advancing along with the evolution of mankind, bearing the important contribution of several ancient peoples, such as Egyptians, Hindus, Hebrews, etc. Starting in the 20th century, with the advent of technology, this advance was drastically accelerated: new equipment, techniques, machines, and fields within medicine have appeared, and are still appearing very often, providing greater speed in diagnoses and in their respective treatments.
The advance of technology has changed not only medicine but also the world and individual behavior, but unfortunately this change has not yet reached a significant portion of the world’s population, in cities with inconceivable HDI.
The curricular standardization of medical courses is a daring and inspiring proposal, which would contribute greatly to improve the quality of life of humankind, especially of the less privileged populations, but given the facts that occur every moment, when we are subjugated to unscrupulous world leaders, politicians, and pharmaceutical industries, we can imagine how distant this idea is from our reality. While technology advances at a stratospheric speed, those who could facilitate and collaborate with the well-being of people only have eyes for their profits.
Implementing this solution will demand a great deal of effort, but every journey begins with a single step, and this beginning has already taken place: we have an idea, a proposal, a request, and a discussion. Let’s move forward!
Luciano Passos Cruz (Physician – Brazil) – April 15, 2023
Defender of the categorical denial of the existence of supernatural entities, and author of several articles published on the subject, Samuel Saraiva advocates in favor of free thought and scientific skepticism, with reason and evidence replacing the belief in divinities, considered inconsistent from any rational or argumentative perspective, as well as any “knowledge” or religious feeling derived from faith or “revelation”.
Saraiva summarizes our passage through the present dimension by emphasizing that there is no reason for foolish or insane acts nor conflicts during our brief existence on the planet that generously serves as our home: “The useless concept of death that terrifies humans has its origin in archaic and fabricated religious cultures. The spirit eternalizes itself with the Universe, while matter, without any use and unsuitable for reuse, is recycled. The arrogance of the idiots is deflated, while the foolish, blazing vanity that served to inflate the cult of beauty is erased from memory, as if it had never existed.
We return to the original stage of freedom in fullness, with our minds either at peace or tormented by what we leave as a legacy: gratitude or destruction, or both.”
In Saraiva’s words: “It is not fair to prevent humanity from evolving through the correct understanding of historical events and records, re-examining ideas or perceptions about what happened thousands of years ago. The chain of transformations derived from the dynamism continues to be observed in the most diverse planes of existence. It needs to be well understood so that people can be freed from the archaic and surrealist dogmas that imprison them in the backwardness of the environment where they were born. It is only a tiny part of the population who, dedicated to science, offer physical and mental healing through technology to those who are not heard or saved by the God they believe to exist.”
Opposing any kind of indoctrination and imposition of ideological, philosophical, or religious principles in childhood, Saraiva warned of the dangers and harms arising from the practice of BRAINWASHING and defended its criminalization, in an article published in 2022 on the website Expressão. He wrote:
“Education is a parental responsibility; they educate and the school teaches, both within the framework of respect for children, without coercive impositions, fear-mongering and punishments that may compromise children’s future behavior, generating antagonism and traumas while inhibiting their potential to discern between reality and surrealism, between the material plane and deliberate imagination, between history and fiction. Children need to receive information so that they can develop their own reasoning, accurate and free from sectarianism of any kind.
These ‘principles’ should not be presented as absolute and permanent truth. We must teach children without forcing them, respecting their spontaneity and free will, according to which they are also entitled to develop their own interpretation of things, so as not to characterize the well-known ‘brainwashing’, extremely harmful and counterproductive in any phase of life. The deification of human figures during the child’s formation process should not be admitted under any circumstances.
The civilized world no longer admits archaic practices such as ‘beating them doesn’t kill them,’ or any kind of constraint that alters or threatens the physical and mental well-being of any human being, particularly children, the most vulnerable part of the population.
Children deserve to be respected and protected from this psychological terrorism. Educating and teaching mean to offer tools that allow and prompt children to exercise reasonableness, instead of merely assimilating other people’s ideas. Archaic, delirious, and reasonably untenable lies are used by adults who, believing they are educating, end up imposing deceitful traditions that they were once forced to accept as absolute truth. These have been used for generations to ‘wash’ innocent brains, which end up imprisoned in the micro formatting of reality, atrophying the capacity for mental exercise, and damaging the expansion of knowledge and the exercise of critical sense, due to mental blockage in adulthood, a damage that is reflected even in the professional field, in all areas of knowledge, by people privileged with education who are unable to free themselves from the shadows of the prevailing millennial backwardness. In the 21st century, they try to reconcile realism and surrealism, projecting hypothetical “knowledge” about life after the material plane.
This cowardly, irresponsible, immoral and criminal practice, when confused with education, limits and hinders personal evolution, condemning innocent people to confinement in dark mental labyrinths, frightened by the belief that they will suffer ‘divine punishment’ if they seek knowledge to understand the universal history with clarity, and use logical reasoning freely. This imperceptible mental block, disguised as good principles, has terrible consequences concerning the domination to which the uneducated and credulous masses are subjected, and for which they will hardly find a cure, which would free them from the rancid legacies of patriarchal ignorance that they try to perpetuate, facilitated by the omission of corrupt and conniving governments. There is no legislation to protect citizens from this practice, which is against the evolution of humanity itself, but reinforces the powerful industry of domination that serves the interests of the elites who profit from the unfair and immoral submission of the masses.
More awareness and an urgent development of scientific-academic action in the area of psychoanalysis are necessary, incentivizing the elaboration of master’s and doctoral theses that can guide the actions of legislators in the correction of such distortions. This theme is of unquestionable importance for the long-term decompression and correction of this noxious and oppressive social culture, which may continue to severely impact the identity construction of many children in the world.”
Throughout Saraiva’s career, he has demonstrated a clear and solid ability to grasp the reality around him pragmatically. “In the absence of awareness, ethics, empathy and discernment, the inequalities and the destruction of the planet grow, fostered by the greed and the insanity of the elites.”
Profits generated by the poor benefit a tiny minority of the rich on the planet in an unfair, immoral and cruel way. Then there is the reality of exploitation, violence, death and chronic misery that unfairly punishes the rest of humanity. They face an endless war of disinformation and manipulation, orchestrated by puppets and organizations in the service of economic power. They face the blindness, omission, greed and complicity of those who choose to represent them, but hide behind party ideologies and acronyms at the service of their campaign financiers.
To citizens all over the world, the only guaranteed rights are: to vote to legitimize the opportunists; work to survive; paying high earthly and heavenly taxes to secure the extravagant lifestyle of the crafty moneybags; obey laws that benefit the dishonest; suffering the consequences of the law with no resources to pay for justice when wronged, hoping for better days against all odds. People submerged in ignorance live under the yoke of exploitation, proudly displaying the logos of political, social and religious organizations with which they sympathize and nurturing the illusion of a better life in the spiritual plane, based on the assumption that, on the terrible day of imaginary “last judgment”, they will be “chosen” to inhabit the hypothetical kingdom of the “ultimate”.
The human race remains trapped in ancient cultures. Here, they leave a trail of destruction, contamination, lies, and hypocrisy in a complete absence of gratitude to the planet that generously welcomed them. Saraiva emphasizes the difference between knowledge and discernment. In his view, to format a reasonable conceptualization, wisdom, instruction, information, capacity for analysis and transcendence are needed instead of reverie and hypothetical theoretical speculation. The free exercise of thought has become a rare privilege available only to minds uncontaminated by the blindness imposed by sectarianisms of a cultural, political, social, philosophical, ideological or religious nature.
Conservative views of archaic and speculative millennial cultures on other planes are innocuous, pretentious and ridiculous. Unable to find reasonable explanations for questions about reality itself, they despise mental evolution, opting for the stage of mental stagnation, to the detriment of evolution. Throughout history, generations have lived in chronic ignorance, clinging to improbable and imaginary alternatives, conforming to “principles” they refuse to develop, while opportunistically, and cynically, seizing advances in science, while treading a path to the inevitable and providential recycling of mortal remains.
Saraiva’s biography summarizes the essence of detachment and solidarity that delivers him from the condition of being a mere passive element of history, while allowing his inclusion in the select group of those who are able to understand the meaning of physical existence and the importance of the spiritual state of full freedom, necessary for the ascension of life in the permanent cycle in which we are replaced by each other, before homogenizing ourselves in the same indissoluble energy that forms the Universe.
In his view, ghosts do not exist; neither magic nor miracles are true; good and evil are relative; and only discernment allows us to understand that we are guests passing through this dimension. For him, “We were born free to keep ourselves free, never prisoners of any religious, political, cultural or philosophical rules. While the sense of land ownership is illusory, detachment makes the return to the original plan a gratifying event, facilitated by the exercise of fraternity, which offers deliverance from the mental torment that afflicts those who become slaves to selfishness. Responsible for the inequalities that cover our land in shame, the selfish insult reason and mercilessly punish millions of humble and vulnerable people.”
“Saraiva transcended the borders of the Amazon and Brazil to affirm himself as a citizen of the world,” in the words of the renowned Journalist Montezuma Cruz (Former editor and correspondent for the newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo, Jornal do Brasil, O Globo, O Estado de Sao Paulo and Correio Braziliense).
Sources: Library of U.S. Congress, Media, Journal of the National Congress and National Library of Brazil.
GALERY – Videos, messages, letters, documents, reports and photographs are mentioned in the biographical text
Three speeches delivered in plenary sessions of the Brazilian Federal Senate by Senator Álvaro Dias, Leader of the PODEMOS Party, on projects by Samuel Saraiva dealing with the defense and preservation of the environment.
Video # 1 https://youtu.be/cwXFPseDKyw
Video # 2 https://youtu.be/Tr8E3IWRvsg
Video # 3 https://youtu.be/69bnYJp0Rtc
Update: January 2024 – Brazilian Federal Senate Official speeches by Senator Álvaro Dias